is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.It
is also the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38
square kilometres (785 sq mi) and 898,680 inhabitants, 43 percent of
the total population of the Canary Islands. Tenerife is the largest
and most populous island of Macaronesia.
Macaronesia is a collection of four archipelagos in the North
Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the continents of Europe and Africa.
Apart from the Azores, which are considered mainly as part of Europe,
the other islands of Macaronesia are closer to Africa. The Macaronesian
islands belong to three countries: Portugal, Spain, and Cape Verde
million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the most visited island of the
archipelago. It is one of the most important tourist destinations in Spain
and the world. Tenerife hosts one of the world's largest carnivals and the
Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is working to be designated as
a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
by two airports, Tenerife-North Airport and Tenerife-South Airport,
Tenerife is the economic centre of the archipelago.
air transport, Tenerife has two principal maritime ports: the Port of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Puerto de Santa Cruz), which serves the various
capitals of the Canary Islands, especially those in the west; and the Port
of Los Cristianos (Puerto de Los Cristianos), which serves the various
island capitals of the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. The first port
also has passenger services, which connect with the mainland port of Cádiz
(and vice versa). In 2017, a large important port was opened in the south
of the island, the Port of Granadilla, and another one is planned
in the west, in Fonsalía. The Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the
first fishing port in the Canary Islands with approximately 7,500 tons of
fish caught, according to the Statistical Yearbook of the State Ports 2006
(the latest of which is changing). Following this report is the largest
port number of passengers recorded. Similarly, the second port of Spain
moving ship and loaded into cars, only surpassed by the Port of Algeciras
Bay. In the port's
facilities include a border inspection post (BIP) approved by the European
Union, which is responsible for inspecting all types of imports from third
countries or exports to countries outside the European Economic Area.
Tenerife has an extensive system of buses, which are called guaguas
in the Canary Islands. The bus system is used both within the cities
and also connects most of the towns and cities of the island. There
are bus stations in all of the major towns, such as the Intercambiador
de Transportes de Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
Cruz de Tenerife is the capital of the island and the seat of the island
council (cabildo insular). The city is capital of the autonomous community
of Canary Islands (shared with Las Palmas), sharing governmental institutions
such as presidency and ministries. Between the 1833 territorial division
of Spain and 1927, Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary
Islands. In 1927 the Crown ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands
be shared, as it remains at present. Santa Cruz contains the modern Auditorio
de Tenerife, the architectural symbol of the Canary Islands.
The island is home to the University of La Laguna; founded in 1792
in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, it is the oldest university in the
Canaries. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the city is the second to have been
founded on the island, and is the third of the archipelago. The city of
La Laguna was capital of the Canary Islands before Santa Cruz replaced it
The University of La Laguna (in Spanish: Universidad de La Laguna), also
known as the ULL, is situated in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the
island of Tenerife. It is the oldest university in the Canary Islands. It
has six campuses: Central, Anchieta, Guajara, Campus del Sur, Ofra and Santa
Cruz de Tenerife.
In 2015, the University of La Laguna entered the ranking of the top 500
universities in the world by the Institute of Education in Shanghai (China),
being the only of the two Canarian public universities to enter the ranking.
In addition, the Leiden ranking, prepared by the Center for Studies of Science
and Technology of the Leiden University (Netherlands), has ranked the University
of La Laguna as the first Spanish university in scientific collaboration.
Meanwhile, in 2016 the University of La Laguna was recognized as the second
best university in Spain in Humanities, according to a survey by the Everis
National Park, a World Heritage Site in the center of the island, has
Teide, the highest elevation of Spain, the highest of the islands of the
Atlantic Ocean, and the third-largest volcano in the world from its base.
Also located on the island, Macizo de Anaga since 2015 has been designated
as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. It has the largest number of endemic species
The island's indigenous people, the Guanches, referred to the island as
Achinet or Chenet in their language (variant spellings are found in the
literature). According to Pliny the Younger, Berber king Juba II sent an
expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira; he named the Canary Islands
for the particularly ferocious dogs (canaria) on the island. Juba II and
Ancient Romans referred to the island of Tenerife as Nivaria, derived from
the Latin word nix (nsg.; gsg. nivis, npl. nives), meaning snow, referring
to the snow-covered peak of the Teide volcano. Later maps dating to the
14th and 15th century, by mapmakers such as Bontier and Le Verrier, refer
to the island as Isla del Infierno, literally meaning "Island of Hell,"
referring to the volcanic activity and eruptions of Mount Teide.
The formal demonym used to refer to the people of Tenerife is Tinerfeño/a;
also used colloquially is the term chicharrero/a.In modern society, the
latter term is generally applied only to inhabitants of the capital, Santa
Cruz. The term "chicharrero" was once a derogatory term used by
the people of La Laguna when it was the capital, to refer to the poorer
inhabitants and fishermen of Santa Cruz. The fishermen typically caught
mackerel and other residents ate potatoes, assumed to be of low quality
by the elite of La Laguna. As Santa Cruz grew in commerce and status, it
replaced La Laguna as capital of Tenerife in 1833 during the reign of Fernando
VII. Then the inhabitants of Santa Cruz used the former insult to identify
as residents of the new capital, at La Laguna's expense.
historians Juan Núñez de la Peña and Tomás Arias
Marín de Cubas, among others, state that the island was likely named
by natives for the legendary Guanche king, Tinerfe, nicknamed "the
Great." He ruled the entire island in the days before the conquest
of the Canary Islands by Castilla.
The earliest known human settlement in the islands date to around 200 BC,
by Berbers known as the Guanches.
organisation before the conquest (The Guanches)
Guanche mummy in Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
About one hundred years before the conquest by king Juba II, the title of
mencey was given to the monarch or king of the Guanches of Tenerife, who
governed a menceyato or kingdom. This role was later referred to as a "captainship"
by the conquerors. Tinerfe el Grande, son of the mencey Sunta, governed
the island from Adeje in the south. However, upon his death, his nine children
rebelled and argued bitterly about how to divide the island.
achimenceyatos were created on the island, and the island was divided into
nine menceyatos. The menceyes within them formed what would be similar to
municipalities today. The menceyatos and their menceyes (ordered by the
names of descendants of Tinerfe who ruled them).
Fernandez de Lugo presenting the native kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and
Tenerife was the last island of Canaries to be conquered and the one that
took the longest time to submit to the Castilian troops. Although the traditional
dates of conquest of Tenerife are established between 1494 (landing of Alonso
Fernández de Lugo) and 1496 (conquest of the island), it must be
taken into account that the attempts to annex the island of Tenerife to
the Crown of Castile date back at least to 1464. For this reason, from the
first attempt to conquer the island in 1464, until it is finally conquered
in 1496, 32 years pass.
In 1464, Diego Garcia de Herrera, Lord of the Canary Islands, took symbolic
possession of the island in the Barranco del Bufadero (Ravine of the Bufadero),
signing a peace treaty with the Guanche chiefs (menceyes) which allowed
the mencey Anaga to build a fortified tower on Guanche land, where the Guanches
and the Spanish held periodic treaty talks until the Guanches demolished
it around 1472.
the governor of Gran Canaria Francisco Maldonado organized a raid that ended
in disaster for the Spaniards when they were defeated by Anaga's warriors.
In December 1493, the Catholic monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and
King Ferdinand II of Aragon, granted Alonso Fernández de Lugo the
right to conquer Tenerife. Coming from Gran Canaria in April 1494, the conqueror
landed on the coast of present-day Santa Cruz de Tenerife in May, and disembarked
with about 2,000 men on foot and 200 on horseback. After taking the fort,
the army prepared to move inland, later capturing the native kings of Tenerife
and presenting them to Isabella and Ferdinand.
of Tenerife had differing responses to the conquest. They divided into the
side of peace (Spanish: bando de paz) and the side of war (Spanish: bando
de guerra). The first included the menceyatos of Anaga, Güímar,
Abona and Adeje. The second group consisted of the people of Tegueste, Tacoronte,
Taoro, Icoden and Daute. Those opposed to the conquest fought the invaders
tenaciously, resisting their rule for two years. Castillian forces under
the Adelantado ("military governor") de Lugo suffered a crushing
defeat at the hands of the Guanches in the First Battle of Acentejo on 31
May 1494, but defeated them at the Second Battle of Acentejo on 25 December
1494. The Guanches were eventually overcome by superior technology and the
arms of the invaders, and surrendered to the Crown of Castile in 1496.
Many of the natives died from new infectious diseases, such as influenza
and probably smallpox, to which they lacked resistance or acquired immunity.
The new colonists intermarried with the local native population. For a century
after the conquest, many new colonists settled on the island, including
immigrants from the diverse territories of the growing Spanish Empire, such
as Flanders, Italy, and Germany.
As the population grew, it cleared Tenerife's pine forests for fuel and
to make fields for agriculture for crops both for local consumption and
for export. Sugar cane was introduced in the 1520s as a commodity crop on
major plantations; it was a labor-intensive crop in all phases of cultivation
and processing. In the following centuries, planters cultivated wine grapes,
cochineal for making dyes, and plantains for use and export.
Amaro Pargo (1678-1741), corsair and merchant from Tenerife who participated
in the Spanish treasure fleet (the Spanish-American trade route).
In the commerce of the Canary Islands with America of the 18th century,
Tenerife was the hegemonic island, since it exceeded 50% of the number of
ships and 60% of the tonnage. In the islands of La Palma and Gran Canaria,
the percentage was around 19% for the first and 7% for the second. The volume
of traffic between the Indies and the Canary Islands was unknown, but was
very important and concentrated almost exclusively in Tenerife.
products that are exported were cochineal, rum and sugar cane, which were
landed mainly in the American ports of La Guaira, Havana, Campeche and Veracruz.
Many sailors from Tenerife joined this transcontinental maritime trade,
among which the corsair Amaro Rodríguez Felipe, more commonly known
as Amaro Pargo, Juan Pedro Dujardín and Bernardo de Espinosa, both
companions of Amaro Pargo, among others.
to the Americas
Tenerife, like the other islands, has maintained a close relationship with
Latin America, as both were part of the Spanish Empire. From the start of
the colonization of the New World, many Spanish expeditions stopped at the
island for supplies on their way to the Americas. They also recruited many
tinerfeños for their crews, who formed an integral part of the conquest
expeditions. Others joined ships in search of better prospects. It is also
important to note the exchange in plant and animal species that made those
century and a half of relative growth, based on the grape growing sector,
numerous families emigrated, especially to Venezuela and Cuba. The Crown
wanted to encourage population of underdeveloped zones in the Americas to
pre-empt the occupation by foreign forces, as had happened with the English
in Jamaica and the French in the Guianas and western Hispaniola (which the
French renamed as Saint-Domingue). Canary Islanders, including many tinerfeños,
left for the New World.
in cultivation of new crops of the Americas, such as cocoa in Venezuela
and tobacco in Cuba, contributed to the population exodus from towns such
as Buenavista del Norte, Vilaflor, or El Sauzal in the late 17th century.
The village of San Carlos de Tenerife was founded in 1684 by Canary Islanders
on Santo Domingo. The people from Tenerife were recruited for settlement
to build up the town from encroachment by French colonists established in
the western side of Hispaniola. Between 1720 and 1730, the Crown moved 176
families, including many tinerfeños, to the Caribbean island of Puerto
Rico. In 1726, about 25 island families migrated to the Americas to collaborate
on the foundation of Montevideo. Four years later, in 1730, another group
left that founded San Antonio the following year in what became Texas. Between
1777 and 1783, More islanders emigrated from Santa Cruz de Tenerife to settle
in what became St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, during the period when Spain
ruled this former French territory west of the Mississippi River. Some groups
went to Western or Spanish Florida.
to the Americas (mainly Cuba and Venezuela) continued during the 19th and
early 20th century, due to the lack of economic opportunity and the relative
isolation of the Canary Islands. Since the late 20th century, island protectionist
economic laws and a strong development in the tourism industry have strengthened
the economy and attracted new migrants. Tenerife has received numerous new
residents, including the "return" of many descendants of some
islanders who had departed five centuries before.
Admiral Nelson wounded at Tenerife
The most notable conflict was the British invasion of Tenerife in 1797.
On 25 July 1797, Admiral Horatio Nelson launched an attack at Santa Cruz
de Tenerife, now the capital of the island. After a ferocious fight which
resulted in many casualties, General Antonio Gutiérrez de Otero y
Santayana organized a defense to repel the invaders. Whilst leading a landing
party, Nelson was seriously wounded in his right arm by grapeshot or a musket
ball, necessitating amputation of most of the arm. Legend tells that he
was wounded by the Spanish cannon Tiger (Spanish: Tigre) as he was trying
to disembark on the Paso Alto coast.
On 5 September
1797, the British attempted another attack in the Puerto Santiago region,
which was repelled by the inhabitants of Santiago del Teide. Some threw
rocks at the British from the heights of the cliffs of Los Gigantes.
The island was also attacked by British commanders Robert Blake, Walter
Raleigh, John Hawkins, Woodes Rogers.
Between 1833 and 1927, Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the
Canary Islands. In 1927 the government ordered that the capital be shared
with Las Palmas, as it remains at present. This change in status has encouraged
development in Las Palmas.
began visiting Tenerife from Spain, the United Kingdom, and northern Europe
in large numbers in the 1890s. They especially were attracted to the destinations
of the northern towns of Puerto de la Cruz and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Independent
shipping business, such as the Yeoward Brothers Shipping Line, helped boost
the tourist industry during this time, adding to ships that carried passengers.
The naturalist Alexander von Humboldt ascended the peak of Mount Teide and
remarked on the beauty of the island.
his rise to power, Francisco Franco was posted to Tenerife in March 1936
by a Republican government wary of his influence and political leanings.
However, Franco received information and in Gran Canaria agreed to collaborate
in the military coup that would result in the Spanish Civil War; the Canaries
fell to the Nationalists in July 1936. In the 1950s, the misery of the post-war
years caused thousands of the island's inhabitants to emigrate to Cuba and
other parts of Latin America.
The oldest mountain ranges in Tenerife rose from the Atlantic Ocean by volcanic
eruption which gave birth to the island around twelve million years ago.The
island as it is today was formed three million years ago by the fusion of
three islands made up of the mountain ranges of Anaga, Teno and Valle de
San Lorenzo, due to volcanic activity from Teide. The volcano is visible
from most parts of the island today, and the crater is 17 kilometres (11
miles) long at some points. Tenerife is the largest island of the Canary
Islands and the Macaronesia region.
Tenerife is a rugged and volcanic island sculpted by successive eruptions
throughout its history. There are four historically recorded volcanic eruptions,
none of which has led to casualties. The first occurred in 1704, when the
Arafo, Fasnia and Siete Fuentes volcanoes erupted simultaneously. Two years
later, in 1706, the greatest eruption occurred at Trevejo. This volcano
produced great quantities of lava which buried the city and port of Garachico.
The last eruption of the 18th century happened in 1798 at Cañadas
de Teide, in Chahorra. Finally, and most recently, in 1909 that formed the
Chinyero cinder cone, in the municipality of Santiago del Teide, erupted.
is located between 28° and 29° N and the 16° and 17° meridian.
It is situated north of the Tropic of Cancer, occupying a central position
between the other Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, La Gomera and La Palma.
The island is about 300 km (186 mi) from the African coast, and approximately
1,000 km (621 mi) from the Iberian Peninsula. Tenerife is the largest island
of the Canary Islands archipelago, with a surface area of 2,034.38 km2 (785
sq mi) and has the longest coastline, amounting to 342 km (213 mi).
the highest point, Mount Teide, with an elevation of 3,718 m (12,198 ft)
above sea level is the highest point in all of Spain, is also the third
largest volcano in the world from its base in the bottom of the sea. For
this reason, Tenerife is the tenth highest island worldwide. It comprises
about 200 small barren islets or large rocks including Roques de Anaga,
Roque de Garachico, and Fasnia adding a further 213,835 m2 (2,301,701 sq
ft) to the total area.
Web Page of public bus service of tenerife
Web page of the tram service (Spanish)
Web page of
the Island Council of Tenerife
Web page of the City Council
of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Information taken from: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenerife